Reduction of marginal mass required for successful islet transplantation in a diabetic rat model using adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells



There are in vitro and in vivo studies reporting the regenerative role of Adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) possibly mediated by their protective effects on functional islet cells as well as their capacity to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). In this study three different models including direct and indirect co-cultures and islet-derived conditioned medium (CM) to differentiate AT-MSCs into IPCs and to illuminate the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial impact of AT-MSCs on pancreatic islet functionality. Furthermore, combined in vitro co-culture of islets and AT-MSCs with in vivo assessment of islet graft function to assess whether co-transplantation of islets with AT-MSCs can reduce marginal mass required for successful islet transplantation and prolong graft function in a diabetic rat model.
Our findings demonstrated that AT-MSCs are suitable for creating a microenvironment favorable for the repair and longevity of the pancreas β cells through the improvement of islet survival and maintenance of cell morphology and insulin secretion due to their potent properties in differentiation.